The biggest dam-removal project in history is complete and Washington state's Elwha River is running freely for the first time in more than a century.
A blast yesterday destroyed the final 30 feet of the 210-foot Glines Canyon Dam, completed in 1927, on the Olympic Peninsula.
The older, 108-foot Elwha Dam was destroyed last year as part of a project to restore what was once the best salmon river in the area.
The restoration has been "the dream of tribal members for a hundred years," a spokesman for the Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe told thePeninsula Daily News as the tribe celebrated.
The old dams lacked fish ladders and no longer produced significant amounts of electricity.
Over the last few years of the restoration project, salmon have started returning to the river and more wildlife has followed.
Millions of tons of sediment that had been trapped behind the dams have created new habitats for wildlife downstream.
"We're seeing all sorts of different creatures. It's fantastic," a US Geological Survey spokesman tells National Geographic, which notes that hundreds of smaller dams have been removed over the last few years.
The poor environmental practices of the former Soviet Union and other eastern European states over many decades is well documented. While these were most glaring for industrial plants and mines, they also spread to agriculture.
One of the lesser-known disasters came from a lack of systems thinking in irrigation. To create vast new areas of irrigated agriculture, the wetlands around lakes were drained to provide water for newly created farms. The unintended consequence was that where water, carrying oxygen, used to flow from the surrounding wetlands into the lake , now the net flow was directed away from the lake.
Lakebeds became desperately short of oxygen, while nutrients, probably from fertiliser runoff, were plentiful at the surface, leading to algae growth. Algae and other organic matter have a high biological oxygen demand and these large blooms further depleted the oxygen content of the lake. The jelly-like material on these eastern European lakebeds is known as sapropel (from the Greek sapros and pelos, meaning putrefaction and mud, respectively), and there is a lot of it.
Sapropel, though very rich in organic material such as algae, humic acid, and some living bacteria, is mostly waterand, luckily, can be easily pumped out. Removal of sapropel helps restore the lake to a place where many species can live. The challenge, however, is to find a use for it.
Romanian billionaire Dinu Patriciu has suggested using it as fuel, and this may yet prove to be commercially viable. But removing the large quantities of water takes energy; the challenge is to work out how to produce more energy than is consumed in retrieving the sapropel from the lakebed.
Another, and very different, approach is being taken by Zander Corporation, a Lancaster-based company. Zander has developed two classes of products from sapropel, which they call AgriZan and ClearEarth. These address several very important needs.
Tests by Zander, and engineers at Stopford Engineering, have shown that ClearEarth has strong binding properties for heavy metals, such as cadmium, lead and mercury. Industrial waste water contaminated with these metals, or water leaching from waste dumps, can be cleansed by flowing through ClearEarth. Further experiments have demonstrated that ClearEarth is a good bioremediation medium (using biological organisms to solve environmenal problems) for soils contaminated with hydrocarbons such as diesel or motor oil. Bioremediation is well established and regulated across Europe for such applications, and a new, effective material is likely to find a ready market.
Equally interesting is the application of AgriZan to improve efficiency of delivering water and nutrients to seeds and young plants. When seeds are growing, they demand water from their surroundings. Even very efficient drip irrigation systems waste water, and most conventional irrigated agriculture is worse, mainly because water is provided whether the plant needs it or not. With a material like sapropel, the water is bound as if in a sponge, and is provided to the plant when it needs it. Nutrients are similarly held and provided on demand. Tests on this material show that its effectiveness in soil seems to last over a very long period, several growing seasons.
A prolonged drought and green tides have resulted in severe pollution along the Nakdong River, one of the country’s four major rivers, turning its water alkaline and dropping the concentration of dissolved oxygen.
In the scorching heat on Wednesday, eight employees of the Nakdong River Environment Research Center and the North Gyeongsang branch of Korea Environment Corporation boarded a water surface cleaning vessel to collect water samples from 10 points located 1 to 5 kilometers (0.6 to 3.1 miles) north of the Gangjeong-Goryeong Weir - a barrier smaller than a conventional dam - in Daegu.
The 30 samples from those spots will be used to conduct a detailed examination of the algal blooms, an assessment first introduced in February by the Ministry of Environment.
Upon reaching the last spot, a reporter from the JoongAng Ilbo who accompanied the researchers made a special request, asking them to measure the dissolved oxygen and pH levels on the water’s surface and at every subsequent meter below.
The pH level at the water’s surface stood at 8.9, a value that reached beyond the scale used for the evaluation of water quality in rivers and lakes, which is between pH 6 and 8.5. The alkalized water was assessed to be “very bad.”
Alkalinity is a measure of water’s capacity to neutralize acidic substances - acidic pollution from wastewater, for example. Water that is too alkaline can harm water quality as well as a river’s ecosystem, causing algal blooms or green tides, and changing the chemistry within a body of water.
Dissolved oxygen at the surface was 10.7 parts per million (ppm), but the level fell sharply to 0.3 ppm eight meters below - indicating that there was barely any oxygen. If the dissolved oxygen level stays lower than 2 ppm, the water quality is considered to be “very bad,” in accordance with evaluation standards, making it uninhabitable for fish and other creatures. The law also stipulates that water evaluated as “very bad” cannot be used for drinking and industrial purposes, even after an advanced water treatment process.
“The water is lacking oxygen not only because of the algal bloom, but also because pollutants dumped into the riverbed by the sporadic rain these days are being decomposed,” said Cheon Se-eok, head of the Nakdong River Environment Research Center.
Environmental organisations have pointed to the number of newly built weirs along Korea’s four major rivers, including the Nakdong River, claiming that they are obstructing the natural flow of the rivers and causing algal blooms.
Directions have been issued to about 48 industrial units polluting River Ganga to close down, the Rajya Sabha was informed on Monday.
The Ministry of Environment & Forests has identified 764 grossly polluting industries discharging 501 million litres per day of waste water into Ganga and its major tributaries, Minister of State for Water Resources and Ganga Rejuvenation Santosh Kumar Gangwar said in his written reply.
"704 industries have been inspected under National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA) programme by NGRBA Cell, CPCB till May, 2014. Directions have been issued to 165 industries, of which 48 are closure directions under Section-5 of E(P) Act, 1986," he said.
The State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs) are required to implement effluent discharge standards by the industries.
Gangwar said action has to be taken against defaulting industries by SPCBs under powers delegated to them by the Central Government under relevant provisions of Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 and Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
To another question on jurisdiction of NGRBA, he said, the Ministry of Environment and Forests has informed that on the recommendations of NGRBA, three power projects - Loharinag Pala, Pala Maneri and Bhaironghati hydro power projects were halted in 2010.
"Further, stage 1B project was also halted in 2010, after National Environment Appellate Authority quashed environmental clearance for the project. In the last three years, no hydro power project has been halted by the Government," Gangwar said.
Replying to a related question, the Minister said,"A comprehensive River Basin Management Plan for Ganga is being prepared by a consortium of seven IITs (Kanpur, Delhi, Madras, Bombay, Kharagpur, Guwahati and Roorkee).
"The objective of the plan is to suggest comprehensive measures for restoration of wholesomeness of Ganga system and improvement of its ecological health, with due regard to the issue of competing water uses in the river basin."
"The plan would take into consideration requirements of water and energy in the Ganga Basin, while ensuring that fundamental aspects of the river system are protected. The IIT consortium is proposing to submit its report by the end of August," he said.
Would you like to write a story on something river related in your area? To do so, send us an original article that is 500 words or less (.txt or .doc files only), upload a picture in jpeg format (max 2mg) and if we like it, we’ll post it on our site as well as send you out an IRF gift pack.
International Riverfoundation is committed to protecting the privacy and confidentiality of personal information. We maintain physical, electronic and procedural safeguards to protect personal information in our care.
How do we collect personal information?
We may request information about you when you purchase or make enquires about our products and services; when you enter competitions or register for promotions or when you request brochures or other information. We may also collect information when we invite you to complete surveys or provide us with feedback.
What personal information do we collect?
We collect information that is required for use in the business activities of International Riverfoundation This may include: name; mailing address; e-mail; telephone number(s); financial details necessary in order to process various transactions and any other information you may elect to provide to us.
How do we use personal information?
We may use personal information to provide information and services. International Riverfoundation may use the information for related purposes such as:
Identification of fraud or error
Regulatory reporting and compliance
Internal accounting and administration
Servicing our relationship with our customers by, amongst other things, providing updates on promotions and services we think may interest you or to involve you in market research.
Is the information disclosed to third parties?
We may disclose information about individuals as permitted by law. We may share information with regulatory bodies and law enforcement officials, provide information to protect against fraud and share information with your consent.
Security of information
International Riverfoundation has implemented appropriate physical, electronic and managerial security procedures in order to protect personal information from loss, misuse, alteration or destruction. International Riverfoundation regularly reviews security and encryption technologies and will strive to protect information to the fullest extent possible.
Access and correction of personal information
Feedback & complaints
This website is owned and operated by International RiverFoundation.
DISCLAIMER OF LIABILITY
International RiverFoundation is not liable to you or anyone else for any loss in connection with use of this website or a linked website. This general disclaimer is not restricted or modified by any of the following specific warnings or disclaimers.
Specific Warnings and Disclaimers
The Trade Practices Act and similar State and Territory legislation in Australia may confer rights and remedies on you in relation to the provision by us of goods or services on the Website, which cannot be excluded, restricted or modified. We do not exclude these rights but do exclude all other conditions and warranties implied by custom, law or statute.
We are not liable to you or anyone else if interference with or damage to your computer systems occurs in connection with use of this website or a linked website. You must take your own precautions to ensure that whatever you select for your use from this website is free of viruses or anything else (such as worms or trojan horses) that may interfere with or damage the operations of your computer systems. We do not warrant that your access to the website will be uninterrupted or error free or that any defects will be corrected.
Under no circumstances (including but not limited to any act or omission on the part of International RiverFoundation) will International RiverFoundation be liable for any indirect, incidental, special and/or consequential damages or loss of profits whatsoever which result from any use or access of, or any inability to use or access, the website.
This website is our copyright property. You are provided with access to it only for your personal and non-commercial use. Other than for the purposes of and subject to the conditions prescribed under the Copyright Act 1968 or any other applicable legislation throughout the world, you may not, in any form or by any means:
• Adapt, reproduce, store, distribute, transmit, print, display, perform, publish or create derivative works from any part of this website; or
• Commercialise any information, products or services obtained from any part of this Website without our written permission.
International RiverFoundation products and services referred to in this website are trade marks of International RiverFoundation. Other product and company names mentioned in this website may be the trade marks of other people or entities. Nothing contained in the website should be construed as granting any licence or right of use of any trade mark or part of any trade mark displayed on the website without the written permission of International RiverFoundation or third party owner.
This website may contain links to linked websites. Those links are provided for convenience only and may not remain current or be maintained. Links to those websites should not be construed as any endorsement, approval, recommendation or preference by us of the owners or operators of the sites, or of any information, products or services referred to on those other sites unless specifically stated. Unless otherwise stated the linked websites are not under the control of International RiverFoundation and International RiverFoundation is not responsible for the contents of any linked website. You link to any such website at your own risk.
In this website:
"IRF" means International RiverFoundation unless otherwise specified.
"linked websites" means websites of persons or entities other than International RiverFoundation which are hyperlinked from this website.
"Personal Information" means any information from which your identity is apparent or can be reasonably be ascertained.
"website" means the whole or any part of the web pages located at www.RiverFoundation.org.au (including the lay-out of this website, individual elements of the website design, underlying code elements of this website, or text, sounds, graphics, animated elements or any other content of this website.)
"We" and "us" refer to International RiverFoundation, and "our" has the same meaning.
© 2007-2010 International RiverFoundation
All rights reserved. Not to be reproduced without consent.
In order to begin the online application process, please fill out some simple details for us and select which application you'd like to complete. Text fields with asterisks are mandatory. You will then be emailed a secure link to your online application form which you can access at any time.